Cuba’s Low Level of Internet Use: Not a Policy of Restricting the Flow of Information

Originally posted on what's left:

If you want to find examples of governments restricting the flow of information on the internet for political purposes, look to the United States and its allies, and not to the low-level of internet use in Cuba, which, notwithstanding press reports to the contrary, is a consequence of Cuba’s comparatively low-level of economic development, not communist ‘totalitarianism.’

August 22, 2015

By Stephen Gowans

cuba-computerPart of the dogma of capitalist societies is that communist states are inherently restrictive and ‘totalitarian’, in contrast to liberal democracies, which are portrayed as beacons of liberty. Communist states, we’re told, suppress dissent, while capitalist states allow it to flourish. This, of course, is nonsense. All states, regardless of how they’re organized economically, suppress dissent under circumstances of grave threat, and relax repression as danger diminishes. Those that are the most free, are those that face the least danger. Highly restrictive societies are typically highly threatened…

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Anti-Russia / Anti-Soviet Propaganda Abounds – Even in Horror Films!

I came across a couple of films recently on Netflix. They caught my eye for two reasons: Because they are horror films (which I quite enjoy) and also because the plot and setting of both films had to do with the former Soviet Union, and by association, especially in the mind of woefully ignorant Americans, Russia at the present time. Beware, the following reviews contain spoilers.

Entity (2012) Poster

The first film, Entity (2012), is a ghost story filmed partially from the point of view of a reality show. The story is about the crew of a paranormal investigation TV show that goes to Russia to investigate a remote forest area where dozens of bodies were found, apparently having been executed. Led along by their Russian guide and also by a psychic who is able to communicate with the dead, the crew eventually wind up at an abandoned facility hidden deep within the Siberian forest. They came to Russia to try to make contact with the dead found in the mass grave in the forest, but the real action happens when they get to the deserted building that turns out to be a very haunted research facility / concentration camp where, they begin to discover, the Soviets brought psychics and other paranormally gifted individuals in order to study them and figure out a way to use their powers in the cold war; by means of “remote viewing” or whatnot.

Before I even watched this movie, one thing jumped out at me right away; that was the “N” in Entity spelled backwards on the movie poster, apparently in order to make the title of the film somewhat resemble the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. It’s not hard to imagine the reason why this is done (and it’s done a lot). The reason is quite obviously to communicate a sense of the foreign and play on xenophobic fears. Americans, more than any other group of people, have been conditioned to fear, despise and condescend all things foreign, but nothing so much as Russia and Russians. This particular nationality is perpetually portrayed as either being excessively stoic (devoid of human emotion), sinister, duplicitous, oafish and even as cold-blooded monsters. Both of the films highlighted here are no exception.

In brief, in Entity you have the Siberian forest, a haunted Soviet concentration camp (the concentration camp theme is consistently used to conflate the Soviets and the Nazis) where torture and human experiments take place and a duplicitous Russian fellow. What could go wrong?

The Hybrid (2014) Poster

Scintilla (2014), renamed The Hybrid, takes place in a former Soviet Republic where foreign mercenaries are sent on a secret mission to recover genetic material of an alien-human hybrid. They make their way past sadistic and psychotic Russian militias (there’s a civil war going on) to an underground bunker containing the top secret Soviet-era laboratory where the genetic material can be found. It turns out that Soviet scientists recovered alien DNA from a meteorite and fused it with human DNA to attempt to create (what else?) a hybrid race of super-soldiers. In the underground research lab we encounter a bust of Stalin and a portrait of Lenin where he seems to be dressed in drag, or else kitted out like a punk rocker; mockery remains an oft-used and effective propaganda device to denigrate an enemy target. However, the head researcher that the mercenaries encounter in the subterranean realm turns out to be British. Why British?

This film was a Swedish production, but American films especially have always had foreigners (non-Americans) play the part of villains. In this case, when you want a sophisticated, intelligent villain you need an actor who will speak the “Queen’s English.” For a more grungy and sadistic villain you could use an Arab/Muslim, a Latin American or, of course, a Russian. But, back to the matter at hand – the demonization of communism and Russia more generally – it makes one wonder, if communism was a system that was essentially self-defeating and unequivocally evil, then why do we need to be constantly reminded of that, and so eagerly encouraged to hate it?

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The West Spreads Intellectual Idiocy

by Andre Vltchek

Could any dictator desire more? Almost the entire population of the Empire is now thinking the same way!

The populace is “educated” at schools and the universities staffed with submissive, and cowardly teachers and professors.

The populace is “informed” by hundreds of thousands of servile journalists and “analysts”. There is almost no deviation from the official narrative.

Congratulations, Western Empire! You have succeeded where others tried but failed. You have achieved almost absolute obedience and discipline, a total servility.

And more than that most of the people actually think that they are free, that they are in control. They believe that they can choose, that they can decide. They are confident that theirs is the greatest civilization ever built on Earth!


Tens of millions are lining up, voluntarily, asking to get “educated”, and eventually to get one of those official Imperial degrees. They want to be accepted, certified and praised by the rulers.

People are offering their own bowed heads to a complex and protracted act of lobotomy. In exchange for stamped pieces of papers called diplomas, men and women lose, forever, their ability to think independently, to analyze and to see the world with their own individual set of eyes. As a reward for their submissiveness, their chances to get prestigious positions in the regime’s elite corporate, academic, and other battalions, dramatically increase.

The extreme degree of compliance of the majority of men and women living in our societies makes old books like “Fahrenheit 451” and “1984” only moderately disturbing. Our reality of “2015” is much more psychedelic, bizarre and appalling… as well as shameful!

Most of the citizens are now even willing to pay for those “educational” and propaganda brain surgeries from their own (or from their family’s) pocket; they are keen to get into deep debts in order to get thoroughly programmed and indoctrinated. Several years later, when it’s all over and nothing is left of their individuality, their chests swell with pride, and they frequently cry when they receive that stamped piece of paper, which in fact means only one thing: “Passed, accepted and certified – ready to serve and to be used by the Empire and its fascist regime”.

Millions of foreigners are lining up for this lobotomy too. Those coming from the colonized and destroyed countries are often the most eager. Children of the elites are excited to receive the stamp of approval from the Empire, to be molded, to blend with the masses in Europe or North America. After “graduating” and after returning “home”, they hang their diplomas on the walls, add titles all over their name cards, increase their fees, and demand respect for their Western ways and their intellectual collaboration with the Empire. Then many of them get busy robbing and further indoctrinating their fellow-citizens on behalf of the West.

In many countries there is no reason to even leave home. Western brainwashing is readily available through countless private Christian and “international” schools, through churches, “cultural institutions”, and of course, through the “entertainment”.

Even such countries like China that can count on much greater and older cultures than that of the West, are now being dreadfully influenced by its own sons and daughters who have been programmed to believe in the greatness of the Western civilization. They were either indoctrinated at the Western “educational” facilities abroad, or by the armies of Western “educators”, “scholars” and preachers who are increasingly busy traveling and spreading their toxic gospel all over the World.

Instead of being given multifaceted and multicultural knowledge, pupils and students have been receiving precisely calculated indoctrination doses, well tested during the centuries of imperialism and colonialism. By now, the Empire knows extremely well how to manipulate human minds. Those who are raped are forced into believing that they are being made love to. Those indiscriminately robbed are taught to praise the colonial powers for building their administrative buildings and railroads and people “at home” are instructed to feel no shame for their past and present.

Instead of being encouraged to think independently, instead of being asked to revolutionize their thinking itself, the people are being tied, restrained by austere intellectual straightjackets.

Courage and independent-mindedness are systematically vilified and belittled. Rebellious souls are marked as “unemployable”, almost as antisocial.

Cowardice, submissiveness and mediocrity are promoted and marketed by the extremely complex and multi-faceted system of propaganda, advertising, “cultural and entertainment events” and media.

In a fully uniform world where even “culture” and media are serving the Empire and its neoliberal business interests, the New Men and the New Women are being shaped from intellectual clay, then put on massive pedestals: all of them tall and slim, all articulately and loudly regurgitating clichés, carefully avoiding real issues, intensively communicating with each other about nothing, while remaining shockingly ignorant about the world.

The New Humans – they are all smiling, all very cool looking. They drive the latest cars and hold modern gadgets in their hands. They are self-confident and endlessly selfish. Their buttocks are increasingly and stereotypically “perfect”.

Many of them are on sedatives, on anti-depressants or on drugs, most of them are miserable, unsure of themselves, unhappy with their jobs, miserable with their families, unable to find or keep their second halves. All this, of course, does not show! On the surface, countless Western men and women look ravishing!

The Italian and German fascists tried, desperately to create this sort of confident looking but obedient breed of super-humans.

They failed.

But this Empire is succeeding! For the first time in human history there is a chance that the Robots will actually replace human beings. Not Robots manufactured from plastic and metals, but humans re-conditioned, recycled into Robots.

Italian Fascism, German Nazism, the corporatism of the United States, imperialism, racism, colonialism, exceptionalism, propaganda, advertising, “education” – they have all been expertly intertwined.

Congratulations, Empire! You are the first one who managed to standardize human beings and their thinking!


It is not easy to fight such an Empire, intellectually.

It is not just logic or philosophy that have to be confronted, to be challenged.

There are also thousands of perceptions, dogmas, codes, all of them serving the same purpose – to keep people away from reality, and from independent thinking and analyses.

Most citizens of the Western Empire are actually much more indoctrinated than the members of such groups as the Taliban or ISIL because the Empire works very hard and employs millions of professionals who create extremely effective concepts designed to control human minds: from ideologues to psychologists, propagandists, educators, artists, journalists and other highly specialized beings.

From social media to soap operas, Hollywood films, pop music and television networks, almost everything leads to the same direction – dragging people away from the basic principles of humanism. Forcing them not to think as a group of rational, caring, compassionate beings.

Reality is either trivialized, or brought to some phantasmagorical levels from where no logic can be effectively applied.

The most important course of human thought – the thinking of, the dreaming of and the designing of new, and much better and more gentle forms of human society – is totally missing from the narrative with which the men, women and children of the Empire and its colonies, are confronted on a daily basis.

The citizens of the Empire are being prevented from thinking and acting in a natural way. As a result, they are frustrated, depressed, and confused. But instead of rebelling (most of them are not capable of it, anymore), they become increasingly aggressive. While the victims of the Empire, all over the world, are being murdered, exploited and humiliated, the arrangement of the world brings actually very little joy (although many material benefits) to the citizens of the Empire – the Europeans and North Americans.

At the other “extreme”: billions of people in former colonies and in neo-colonies are also bombarded, constantly, by the same twisted, recycled and modified messages. They face a perpetual avalanche of propaganda (slightly modified for each particular region), streaming day and night from the Empire’s indoctrination outlets: be the soap operas, the lowest grade of movies and video games (the same thing, really), pop music with repetitive brain-dead lyrics, toothless decorative “art”, or the “news” broadcasts and reports carried by the mainstream press agencies. These messages are disseminated via local mass media outlets that are in turn mainly controlled by the business interests, which are determinedly collaborative with the global, Western regime.

The Empire and its arrangement of the world are outrageously racist and brutal, but most of its citizens, even its subjects in looted lands, are forced to believe that it is actually the most “tolerant” and “progressive” system on Earth.


Is there any hope that humanity will survive this mass-produced idiocy?

Yes, of course there is!

The fight is on.

It is not only Russian, Chinese and Iranian NAVY maneuvers that are now challenging Western imperialism.

It is not only the Latin Americans and South Africans who have made determined efforts to rewrite history and to arm people with knowledge, instead of diplomas.

Perhaps the greatest living European filmmaker, Emir Kusturica, recently wrote, sarcastically, that: “World War III will start with Pentagon bombing of RT”, referring to the powerful television network “Russia Today”. RT commented:

“RT is a real threat to US state propaganda as it reaches Americans “in their own homes, in perfect English, better than they use on CNN.” And that is why, according to the director, Washington could get fed up and seek to silence RT by force – much like NATO did to Serbian state TV in April 1999.

In turn, Kusturica predicts, Moscow would destroy CNN, which he considers the flag-bearer of pro-American propaganda: “CNN in direct transmissions assures that since the 1990s America has been leading humanitarian actions, and not wars, and that its military planes rain angels, not bombs!”

Although some of the greatest thinkers confronting the Empire – Saramago, Galeano and Pinter – have recently passed away, there are still many of those who are managing to escape indoctrination. Some are regrouping around new non-Western television networks like TeleSUR, RT and PressTV.

It is like Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451”, all over again. Some people, stubbornly, refuse to burn their books.

Even in the West, some powerful media outlets – CounterPunch, Dissident Voice, ICH, VNN, Global Research, and others – are holding the line. They are not yet winning, far from it, but they are not dying, either!

As long as the independent thought is alive, not everything is lost.

“I rebel; therefore we exist”, wrote French philosopher Albert Camus. He also added: “The feeling of rebellion is born in oppression”.

The Empire denies that it oppresses the world. It indoctrinates both oppressors and the oppressed, re-defining, in fact “re-branding” oppression as freedom.

Those of us, who are managing to escape its indoctrination, are now rebelling. Therefore – humanity still exists.

The battlefield is becoming very well defined: it is now mainly about information, and about knowledge.

The deeds, the tricks, performed by the Empire are dirty, horrendous, but very transparent. They can be accepted or tolerated by billions only because of the constant repetition of the lies, and because of the twisted concepts hammered into the people’s brains through the “mainstream education”.

The war for survival of humanity is already being fought. It is “The Great Humanistic War” – the war over people’s brains and hearts, not over the territory. It can be also called the “information war”, a “detox” war, or a war to bring human beings back to life from their intellectual intoxication, from their slumber and servility, a war for much better world, a war that would put knowledge above diplomas and stamps, human warmth and kindness above violence and aggression, and human beings above profits and money.

The victory can only arrive accompanied with knowledge, with independent thought, with rational humanism, with compassion and solidarity, and human warmth.

Source: CounterPunch

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The Able Archer 83 Sourcebook

[Originally] Posted – November 7, 2013 [National Security Archive]

For more information contact:
Nate Jones –
202/994-7000 or

A slide from the unclassified September 9, 1983, commander airlift forces briefing shows the expansive “footprint” of the Autumn Forge war games.

Washington, D.C., November 7, 2013 – Today marks the 30th anniversary of the beginning of Able Archer 83, a NATO exercise that utilized “new nuclear weapons release procedures” to simulate the transition from conventional to nuclear war with the Soviet Union.  Although US officials saw Able Archer 83 as a routine exercise, it resulted in an “unprecedented Soviet reaction” which US intelligence eventually inferred “was an expression of a genuine belief on the part of Soviet leaders that US was planning a nuclear first strike,” according to the largest collection of declassified documents on the 1983 War Scare compiled and posted by the National Security Archive,

The climax of Able Archer 83 was on November 9, 1983 when NATO war gamers at Supreme Headquarters Allied Power Europe (SHAPE) realized they could not halt a simulated Soviet conventional advance and requested “initial limited use of nuclear weapons against pre-selected fixed targets.”  This limited strike was not enough, and on the morning of November 11, a “follow-on use of nuclear weapons was executed.”

While NATO was practicing a drawn-out transition from conventional to nuclear war, Soviet leadership feared a decapitating first strike.  The imminent European deployment of western Pershing II and cruise missiles which could reach the Soviet Union in ten minutes led Soviet General Secretary Yuri Andropov to warn in June of 1983 of the “the dangerous ‘red line'” of nuclear war through “miscalculation” four times during his “first real meeting” with an envoy from the Reagan administration.  A KGB report from May of 1982 describes the creation of the largest peace-time human intelligence gathering operation in history, Operation RYaN, in an attempt to “prevent the possible sudden outbreak of war by the enemy.”

“Report of the Work of the KGB in 1981,” May 10, 1982.

The American intelligence community did not initially perceive the risk of nuclear miscalculation that Able Archer 83 involved.  Only “in response to British concerns” were intelligence reports drafted on the War Scare, the most ominous of which — from CIA Director William Casey to President Ronald Reagan and other cabinet officials — warned of “a dimension of genuineness” and “high military costs” to the Soviet actions.  A summary of a still-classified retrospective 1991 intelligence report showed an “ominous list of indicators” pointing toward genuine Soviet fear of a Western first strike,” which caused the Soviet military to ready its forces for a preemptive strike on the West.  “If so,” the report understated, “war scare a cause for concern.”

Despite the dangerous ramifications of this possible nuclear miscalculation, the history of the Able Archer 83 war scare has remained largely unavailable to the public. This dearth of primary sources has even led critics — with some justification — to describe the study of the war scare as “an echo chamber of inadequate research and misguided analysis” and “circle reference dependency,” with an overreliance upon “the same scanty evidence.”

In an attempt to fill this “echo chamber,” the National Security Archive has posted, the largest collection of documents about the incident available. These documents come from Freedom of Information Act releases by the CIA, the National Security Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Department of State, research findings from American and British archives, as well as formerly classified Soviet Politburo and KGB files, interviews with ex-Soviet generals, and records from other former communist states.

Among the revelations in these documents are:

The unclassified NATO summary of Able Archer 83, kindly provided by SHAPE chief historian Gregory Pedlow, provides a chilling narrative of how the Cold War could have turned nuclear.
    • U.S. notes of the “first real meeting between the United States and the Soviet Union since the start of the [Reagan] Administration” in June of 1983 between General Secretary Yuri Andropov and U.S. envoy Averell Harriman, in which Andropov warned of nuclear war through miscalculation four times. Harriman, who had negotiated with Stalin during the Second World War, concluded that Andropov, “seemed to have a real worry that we could come into conflict through miscalculation.”
    • KGB annual reports for the years 1981 and 1982 corroborating the creation of Operation RYaN (RYaN was the Russian acronym for Raketno-Yadernoye Napadenie, “nuclear missile attack”), the largest peace-time intelligence gathering operation in history to “prevent the possible sudden outbreak of war by the enemy.”
    • A CIA memo providing evidence of the “Warsaw Pact Early Warning Indicator Project” – the U.S. intelligence community’s analogue to Operation RYaN.
    • An unpublished, declassified CIA Studies in Intelligence article (different from the well-circulated CIA unclassified monograph) that provides a narrative of the War Scare and concludes that Soviet fears of a preemptive U.S. nuclear strike, “while exaggerated, were scarcely insane,” and discloses that the United States also had an intelligence source in Czechoslovakia partially corroborating the British intelligence asset Oleg Gordievsky’s reporting that Soviet leaders feared an imminent war.
    • Volume four of the National Security Agency’s previously classified history, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989 (volumes one through three can be found here), which chronicles the years 1980-1989, and asserts that “the period 1982-1984 marked the most dangerous Soviet-American confrontation since the Cuban Missile Crisis.”
    • Declassified backchannel discussions between Reagan advisor Jack Matlock and Soviet sources who warned of “growing paranoia among Soviet officials” whom the source described as “literally obsessed by fear of war.”
    • Interviews with high level “unhappy Cold Warriors” in the Soviet military, conducted in the early 1990s, in which they explain their recollections and experiences during the War Scare.
    • An official summary of Able Archer 83 produced by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), which conducted the exercise, which presents for the first time a detailed chronology of the war game, lists the participants in the exercise, and gives the reader a chilling glimpse of how NATO envisioned World War Three could begin. After Orange (a thinly disguised Warsaw Pact) invaded Yugoslavia, Finland, and eventually Norway, Blue (NATO) defended its allies and conventional war descended into chemical, and eventually nuclear, war. After Orange gained further advances, “SACEUR requested initial first use of nuclear weapons against fixed targets in Orange satellite countries.” However, “Blue’s use of nuclear weapons did not stop Orange’s aggression.” Then, “a follow-on use of nuclear weapons was executed on the morning of 11 November.” At that point, the exercise ended.
    • The first declassified after-action reports of exercise Able Archer 83. The most extensive of these, written by the US Strategic Air Command, provides a detailed chronology of Able Archer 83 and shows that the exercise lasted from November 7 to November 11, 1983. It also reports that there was a SACEUR decision before the exercise began “to reduce the level of nuclear exchange between Blue and Orange,” and reveals the “sensitive, political issue” of “slips of the tongue” in which B-52 sorties were referred to in communications as “strikes.” This was important, the after-action report noted, because eavesdropping Soviets may have asked, “if B-52 aircraft are present in a nuclear scenario exercise, are they being used to perform strike missions?”
    • Other briefings and after action reports clarify that Able Archer 83 was one of several (at least six) exercises under the “umbrella” of Autumn Forge 83, which simulated a war with “Orange Pact” forces in Europe. The largest exercise under the “umbrella” of Autumn Forge 83 was Reforger 83, short for “return of US forces to Germany,” a radio-silent, 170-flight airlift of troops from the US to Europe to simulate a land war against “Orange” (Warsaw Pact) forces. When this land war turned nuclear, Able Archer simulated “command and control procedures with particular emphasis on the transition from purely conventional operations to chemical, nuclear and conventional operations.”

Side-by-side images from the CIA’s Top Secret “Implications of Recent Soviet Military-Political Activities” (left) and a Secret 1984 State Department memo (right) reveal that the United States hid all references to Soviet reactions to Able Archer 83 in the report provided to their NATO allies.
  • A previously unpublished interview with Marshal Sergei Akhromeyev that points to the importance of the distinctions — and interrelation — between Autumn Forge 83, Reforger 83, and Able Archer 83. Akhromeyev stated that he did not remember “Able Archer 83” but that, “we believed the most dangerous military exercises [were] Autumn Forge and Reforger. These [were] the NATO exercise in Europe.” Akhromeyev finds unlikely support in another previously unpublished interview. Caspar Weinberger who served as US Secretary of Defense during the War Scare said, “the difference between a realistic exercise or maneuver and what could be preparations for an attack, that line is sometimes quite blurred.”
  • A Department of State memo recounting that the United States “sanitized” the Special National Intelligence Estimate (SNIE) on the War Scare, removing all mentions of Able Archer 83 and the Soviet reaction to it, before providing it to NATO. Thus, the U.S. hid the danger of Able Archer 83 from the very allies who participated in the exercise.
  • A memorandum from Director of the Central Intelligence Agency William Casey to President Reagan and other Cabinet-level officials warning that “The [Soviet] military behaviors we have observed involve high military costs … adding thereby a dimension of genuineness to the Soviet expressions of concern that is often not reflected in intelligence issuances.”
  • A contemporary (December 1983) CIA analysis entitled, “Soviet Thinking on the Possibility of Armed Confrontation with the United States,” that asserted Moscow was “playing up the ‘war danger'” and that the Soviets did not “anticipate a near-term military confrontation with the United States.”
  • A formerly unpublished summary of the most extensive (and still classified) analysis of Able Archer 83, a 110-page President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board report to George H.W. Bush in 1990. According to the report’s summary, provided by one of its authors, the “war scare was an expression of a genuine belief on the part of Soviet leaders that US was planning a nuclear first strike, causing Sov[iet] military to prepare for this eventuality, for example by readying forces for a Sov[iet] preemptive strike.”

Although the National Security Archive has compiled and posted more than 1,000 pages of declassified documents on Able Archer 83, much more remains classified and unavailable to the public.

Film from President Reagan’s meeting with “KGB Defector” Oleg Gordievsky on July 21 1987.

The continued classification of significant documents related to Able Archer 83, 30 years after the fact, is very difficult to defend. Documents that deal with this exercise — including the most comprehensive report ever written about it — contain information of interest not only to scholars of the Cold War, but also to all concerned about the danger of nuclear weapons. If, as some within the US intelligence community have claimed, there was an increased danger of nuclear war through miscalculation in 1983, the documents detailing the danger of Able Archer 83 could help government officials avert future nuclear standoffs and reduce the probability of accidental war. Revelations about the risk and possibility of nuclear miscalculation complicate the argument that nuclear deterrence has gifted humanity with a “long peace” and undermine the contention that the danger of worldwide nuclear war ended with the 1962 Cuban missile crisis.

Soviet SS-20s and American Pershing IIs have been removed and retired, the Cold War has ended, and the Soviet Union no longer exists. After the fact, a fuller picture of the dangers of Able Archer 83 has emerged. But due to failures of the US declassification system, many more important documents about this potentially dangerous nuclear episode remain unavailable to the public, locked in secure facilities, under the rubric that their release “reasonably could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security.”  In fact, their declassification could help protect the United States and the rest of the world from the gravest of all security threats: nuclear war.

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The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America | The Greanville Post • Vol. IX


The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America

The link leads to a review of this book by a snarky Trotskyite who takes a few jabs at Stalin and the Soviet Union, but otherwise gives a great overview of the book’s revelations of extensive CIA malfeasance. – PC

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